Israel Unbounded – Securitization, pacification, and nuclearism in emergent global alignments

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By Judy Deutsch

The most recent Israeli news items to attract widespread attention are the UAE/Israel trade/technology transfer/and security agreement and the agreement with Bahrain, with predictions of a Saudi deal soon to come. For the past five years, contacts between Israel and the Gulf states have expanded with trade now estimated at about $1 billion a year.  Hardly reported in the media are Israel’s latest bombing of Gaza.  The image of Israel as the sole island of democracy and morality in the Middle East is quickly fading with global public awareness of how Israel’s military strategies and technologies play a part in police violence worldwide. Nevertheless, large protests within Israel are against corruption and austerity, not against Israeli militarism.

  Jeff Halper’s War against the People: Israel, the Palestinians and Global Pacification  is a thorough study of Israel’s advanced military weapons. The “people” encompass the entire multiplicity of capitalism’s victims –  composite of class, race, ethnicity, nationalities, ideology, gender, age.  Israel operates in a world speeding from one extinction threat to another, propelled by phenomenal private profit.  This is not to suggest that all people are equally endangered or oppressed, but that rulers worldwide are interdependent within a neoliberal system which disempowers the majority of people. Israel is integral to a global buying spree of military technology for armed suppression and control.

The emergent global trajectory is a shock to basic morality and historical hindsight: authoritarian and psychopathic leaders, fascists in government, populism, racism, disposable labour, extreme and in many cases unsurvivable immiseration, appallingly cruel treatment of children, and neoliberal destruction of the social safety net.  Israel sells “security” and “pacification”, meaning insecurity and violence for the many.  The efflorescence of fundamentalism in a number of countries is one driver of compliance with authoritarian, racist, anti-science extremism. Securitization rides roughshod over legal protections. Internationally renowned legal expert Richard Falk describes the emergent global constellation as “gangster geopolitics.”

 

….“Technicians of slaughter,
Bastards in whose eyes
Morality is a pain in the ass.”
Aharon Shabtai  From “J’Accuse”

 

NEWLY EMERGING MILITARIZED ALIGNMENTS AND CONFLICTS

In the current world, the deadliest violence is within states. Wars are fought by militaries and by militarized police, state-supported paramilitaries, and by proxy forces from other countries.

There are also conflicts between NATO countries: in the Mediterranean, NATO states and Israel compete with each other for natural gas. Turkey is a base for US/NATO nuclear weapons but at times aligns with Russia. Israel is “a leading member of NATO’s Individual Cooperation program” (Halper p. 57) and has long been the secret conduit for American arms transfers to dictatorships and paramilitaries when the U.S. barred sales to countries because of human rights violations.  There are resurgent European colonial “spheres of influence” to secure resources. 

There is a frightening possibility that local wars could trigger another world war for power. The danger of nuclear war is underreported by major media despite urgent warnings by major journalists like John PilgerEric Schlosser, Nick Turse, by scientist Theodore Postol and by Dan Ellsberg.  Paul Jay interviewed diplomats and military people who agreed that “it’s not that there’s a chance, they think there is 100% certainty that if things continue as they are, at some point… there will be, at the very least, accidental nuclear war.” Vulnerable areas are China and India, Pakistan and India, U.S./NATO against Russia or China, and Israel and the U.S. against non-nuclear Iran. 

Public knowledge about nuclear weapons virtually disappeared after the end of the Cold War. Important facts:  G.W. Bush’s incredibly dangerous abrogation of the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty, opening the door to missile defence (“star wars”) and the belief that a nuclear war is winnable through a first strike destruction of an enemy’s nuclear arsenal; Obama’s allocation of  over $1tn for nuclear weapons; thermonuclear weapons bombs, developed in the 1950s, are 1000 times more destructive than the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs, and a local nuclear war (100 Hiroshima-size bombs) could lead to human extinction because fallout would cause multi-year nuclear winter and the end of agriculture. The five permanent members of the UN Security Council are the original nuclear weapons states and have the final say on military intervention – in the institution set up to end the scourge of war! No NATO countries have signed on to the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (nuclear ban treaty). The U.S. president can  launch nuclear weapons without congressional approval.  There has not been reaction to indications that Saudi Arabia and Japan may develop nuclear weapons.

The following sections summarize pertinent information about Israel’s role in this dangerous global setup.

 

ISRAEL’S  CULTURE OF MILITARISM:  ZIONISM AND JUDAISM

                Interpreting culture is inherently selective.  At the forefront currently is the highly-politicized pressure to criminalize criticism of Israel as antisemitic.  The allegation ignores the difference between Judaism as a religion with people of diverse historical cultures from many parts of Europe, the Middle East, and Africa, whereas Zionism refers to a modern settler colonial state rooted in the nationalist ideologies of the late nineteenth century. Zionism, like the United States and South Africa, utilizes the foundational myth of settling a “land without people”, and has constructed a new culture.

 Alleging antisemitism to opponents of Zionism  ignores the very substantial Jewish opposition to Zionist apartheid and militarism. It is worth quoting from the well-known letter to the New York Times in 1948, signed by Albert Einstein, Hannah Arendt, and other prominent Jewish people: “Among the most disturbing political phenomena of our times is the emergence in the newly created state of Israel of the ‘Freedom Party’ (Tnuat Haherut), a political party closely akin in its organization, methods, political philosophy and social appeal to the Nazi and Fascist parties. It was formed out of the membership and following of the former Irgun Zvai Leumi, a terrorist, right-wing, chauvinist organization in Palestine” and led by future prime minister Menachem Begin.

A new book by Israeli historian Haim Bresheeth Zabner, the son of Holocaust survivors, cites much evidence of how Zionism from the start was fundamentally militant and differentiated itself from traditional Judaism, how it fabricated fear of Arab society to induce Jewish migration to Palestine/Israel, and documents Zionist discrimination against WWII Jewish refugees and the intentional erasure of their culture and Yiddish (Jewish) language.

In Israel, militarism is inculcated in youth from early childhood.  Avi Mograbi’s documentary “Avenge But One of My Two Eyes” shows how the Samson and Masada myths which are exhortations to heroic suicidal acts of aggression, are taught to children from early childhood through late adolescence.  In one striking scene, a group of older teens on a field trip to Masada say that if they were under siege, surrounded by watchtowers, they would commit acts of suicide terrorism – with not a shred of thought about Israel’s watchtowers and violent siege of Gaza.

 Nurit Peled-Elhananhere, in her analysis of Israeli school books, found that “children are taught that massacres confer dignity and pride on the military. From kindergarten to grade 12, the military is the idol, role model and god of the Israel youth. Jews are depicted as superior and emblematic of universal values whereas a ‘Palestinian life does not count as life.’” “The mythological heroes are fearless murderers.”  She describes Jewish mothers in Jewish/Palestinian bereavement groups who “gush about their handsome sons in uniform” when they hear the drumbeat of war.

The “Zionist” personality emerged from the imagination of Theodore Herzl at the end of the 19th century.  In his diaries and letters, Herzl wrote in detail about his ideal heroes being the old Prussian nobility and “agile, courageous” American cowboys. Herzl envisioned life governed by a code of behaviour “patterned on the ethos of honor, courage, and nobility of the European aristocracy… direct, stalwart, unafraid of its own aggression.” (Loewenberg, p. 102). 

Israeli historian Ilan Pappe describes the 1930’s decision to militarize Zionism.  He writes that political leadership, economic directorship, even social and cultural management are all won through a military background or a career in the security “octopus” that runs Israel.  The budget and the economy as a whole, the socialisation process, the educational system and even the media are all geared to service the State.  It is “an Army with a State, and each new generation will only be able to view reality through the perspective of an armed conflict, military values and wars.” (Pappe p.184). Todd Miller, investigating  Israel’s role in global border surveillance technology, observed Israeli tech students preparing drones for competitions, “underscoring the vast world of student and even youth programs behind today’s global homeland security systems.” (Miller p. 58-9)

A film review in Israel’s liberal newspaper Ha’aretz raises the possibility of a new willingness by some within the U.S. Jewish lobby to face stark realities about Israel. “The American Jewish community and Israeli Jewish community are going in opposite directions right now…. Israelis see Trump understanding their existential dread; American Jews see Trump as their existential dread”.  American Jews see Netanyahu’s racism against Obama and the appalling positions of Jewish-American advisors Jared Kushner and Stephen Miller. Ali Abunimah, American-Palestinian founder of the Electronic Intifada, writes that American Zionist Peter Beinart’s  “defection and embrace of some form of one-state solution” is a sign that “liberal Zionism as it has existed for decades is in total collapse.”  In Israel, Channel 2 played a recording to the public on October 2nd of ”Hebrew University Professor, Dr. Ofer Cassif comparing recent Israeli legislation, both proposed and passed, to those of the Third Reich in Nazi Germany….” Indeed, there have long been Jewish voices comparing Israel’s militarization and racism to Nazi Germany.

…“For the sniper who fired at the child
Is only a single stinking instrument
Within an enormous orchestra”

Aharon Shabtai from J’Accuse


ISRAEL’S NUCLEAR WEAPONS AND ITS ROLE IN NUCLEARISM

It is puzzling that there is no information about Israel’s nuclear weapons program on the websites of progressive Jewish organizations (IJV Canada, IJV UK, JVP, IJAN, L’Union Juive) even though Israel plays a pivotal political role in the nuclear weapons system. Netanyahu’s lies about Iran’s nuclear weapons was instrumental in Trump’s quashing the Iran nuclear agreement (JCPOA) in 2018.  In 2015, Israel derailed the UN 5-year Non Proliferation Treaty Review (NPT). Though a non-signatory to the NPT, Israel was able to shift the focus to Iran when it was critical to take all nuclear weapons off high-alert status at the height of the Ukraine/Russia/US crisis when NATO and its nuclear arsenal impinged on Russia’s borders. Mossad  reported that there was not an Iran threat:  “In a secret report shared with South Africa, Israel’s intelligence agency concluded that Iran was ‘not performing the activity necessary to produce weapons.’”

  Iran as existential threat has been politically serviceable to Israeli leaders. “The Israeli President warns us now that Iran is on the cusp of producing a nuclear weapon. Heaven preserve us…. Shimon Peres, as Israeli Prime Minister, said exactly the same thing in 1996.…  Benjamin Netanyahu, said in 1992 that Iran would have a nuclear bomb by 1999….(Robert Fisk). (also see Richard Falk Christian Science Monitor Seymour Hersh).  In 2009 Israel and the U.S. NSA infected Iranian computers with Stuxnet and shut down Iran’s uranium enrichment program.

World leaders, the UN, and NGOs have always colluded with Israel’s official policy of secrecy and ambiguity about its nuclear weapons arsenal. In 2009, Obama when asked at his first news conference if he knew of any country in the Middle East that has nuclear weapons, replied that he didn’t want to “speculate.” In 2014, the US and Canada were among five countries to oppose a UN Arab resolution criticizing Israel for refusing to join the NPT. And again, the UN and major anti-nuclear weapons NGO’s will hold meetings with Middle East countries to establish a nuclear weapons-free zone, but how can this be effective when Israel, for the second time, will not participate even though it is the only nuclear-armed Middle East country?  Germany recently provided Israel with a fleet of advanced submarines equipped to fire long-range nuclear-tipped cruise missiles; two were given to Israel as Holocaust reparation (!). An article in Reform Judaism Magazine, “Strategic Bedfellows”   reports the close ties between then prime minister Advani and Israel, with India providing Israel a submarine base in the Indian Ocean.

                Reviewing this suppressed history, Israel gained access to nuclear weapons production in 1957 through the French socialist governments. Seymour Hersh traces Israel’s nuclear program in his book The Samson Option.  Ben-Gurion was passionately committed to nuclear weaponization and he had total control over his party “like that of a Mafia don”(Hersh p.33).   Ben-Gurion, Moshe Dayan, and Shimon Peres waged “what amounted to a constant war – all in secret – to keep the Israeli bomb project alive.” (Hersh p 59) They secured the necessary funding from discreet wealthy Jews known as the Committee of Thirty, and the U.S. ensured the secrecy of Israel’s nuclear program through gag orders making its disclosure punishable by imprisonment.  (Shlaim. P.66)  Israel refused to be pressured by former presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon Johnson to sign the Non-Proliferation Treaty which meant inspections by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) – the agency that found Iraq and Iran in compliance with international regulations. Senator Stuart Symington, a ranking member of the Senate Armed Services Committee, told Peres “Don’t be a bunch of fools. Don’t stop making atomic bombs. And don’t listen to the administration. Do whatever you think best.”(Hersh, p. 119) 

By 1968 Israel had completed its Dimona reprocessing plant deeply underground and was in full-scale production.  Its uranium ore had been purchased from the Argentina dictatorship and apartheid South Africa. Israel and South Africa agreed to joint bomb tests and arms transfers, and Israel promoted a South African bomb.  In 1986, the London Sunday Times printed Mordecai Vanunu’s detailed evidence and photographs of Israel’s nuclear facilities at Dimona. 

Current estimates (Janes, SIPRI) are that Israel possesses between 100 and 300 nuclear warheads, deployable by land, air, or sea. Israel’s Jericho I, II and III long-range surface-to-surface missiles are nuclear capable and have a range up to 7,800km (4,800 miles). Nuclear warheads can also be deployed by American-supplied F-16 jets. (Halper p 113). “Samson” implies that Israel would opt for a suicidal strike if threatened by an overwhelming attack.

“…Because, when it comes down to it, we’re only speaking
Of a population of a certain size,
Which needs to be pounded and ground
Then shipped off as human powder.”
Aharon  Shabtai From “J’Accuse”

 

ISRAEL’S  21st CENTURY TECHNOLOGICAL WARS, POLICING, BORDERS

Jeff Halper writes that Israel “gets away with it” because of its specialized indispensability in global arms, strategy, and surveillance. Halper provides extensive detail about “net-centric warfare” and the range of electronic systems and devices to “deal with complicated electromagnetic, or information environment.”  The Israel Export Institute lists 14 companies specializing in avionics – the design and manufacture of all the electronic systems used on aircraft, satellites and spacecraft. Forward-looking infrared sensor (FLIR) weapons are laser-guided munitions with automatic target trackers to provide fully automatic tracking at altitudes, airspeeds and slant ranges consistent with tactical weapon delivery. 

SIPRI data between 2015 and 2019 shows that Israel was the 8th largest arms exporter and that its global sales increased by $77m 2019.  Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI)  opened a new government relations office in Washington D.C. to secure more US contracts. In 2015, Canada “quietly amended” its export law to allow Canadian arms shipments of prohibited weapons to Israel.  Canadian researchers Yves Engler, Richard Sanders, and Kole Kilibarda provide information about that the Canada Israel Security Agreement and about the major Canadian pension fund investments in companies contracting with Israel’s military

The US military and Israel gear strategy and technology to control dense urban or slum populations with Malthusian/Hobbesian projections of violence and breakdown in reaction to climate and economic disasters. Israel uses Gaza as a weapons lab and showcase.  The Urban Warfare Training Center was constructed by US Army Corps of Engineers in the Negev where U.S. and Israeli troops train for assaults on densely populated areas like Fallujah and Jenin. Israel’s security zone expertise and perimeter defenses are applied to financial cores, government districts, embassies, venues where G-8 and NATO hold meetings, and fuel depots.

Israel’s role in militarizing police was brought to the public when elderly Holocaust survivor Hedy Epstein protested against the police killing of Michael Brown.  “And the police chief of Ferguson has been trained in Israel how to mishandle a large group of people… And it’s the same kind of violence that I’ve observed when I was in the Israel-occupied Palestine.  It’s just abominable, what’s happening.”   Jimmy Johnson points out that policing and security agreements between governments and Israel do not involve any public input or democratic control. In 2005, 39 police chiefs and the Minister of Community Safety from Ontario, Canada went to Israel to study Israel’s anti-terrorism and law-enforcement strategies, paid for in part by Canadian Jewish organizations (Engler, p. 58-9).  Israel’s Law Enforcement Exchange Program (LEEP) claims to have trained more than 11,000 U.S. police agents.  Halper’s acronym is MISSILE: military, internal, security, intelligence, and law enforcement. 

Less well-known is Israel’s involvement in border security.   Since the dismantling of the Berlin wall at the end of the Cold War, walled borders have increased from 15 to 77.  The U.S. war on terror has displaced 37 million people, while extreme poverty and climate disasters have increased the total displaced population to 79.5 million peopleBorder security has been an economic boon for Israel. Many of these recent walled borders are armed with technology for security and pacification purchased from Israel: UAVs (drones) for surveillance, perimeter defense and access controls, threat detection systems for cargoes, sensors, ‘biometric borders’ for airports, smart-card IDs, credit card and passport monitoring by NICE Systems.  It is increasingly common for refugees to be monitored and stopped, through this technology, long before they get to border crossings (Miller). 

Eyal Weizman describes the globalization of the Israeli model of population control.  The “linear border of the nation state has splintered into a multitude of temporary transportable borders through walls, barriers, blockades, closures, roadblocks, check points, sterile areas, closed military zones and killing zones. 

…And now, at long last,
He’ll roll up his sleeves
And get down to the work at which he excels,
And bring about a blood bath.

Aharon Shabtai from “J’accuse”

 

LAW

Worldwide, laws to end war may be a moral ideal, but they are applied arbitrarily and cynically. Laws intended to limit or eliminate war, “unconventional” weapons, torture, or to protect civilians, are often interpreted to allow the opposite. Navi Pillay, former Chair of the UN Human Rights Council, sharply criticized the UN for lack of enforcement: “I firmly believe that greater responsiveness by this council would have saved hundreds of thousands of lives,” and she cited Gaza as an example of a predicted crisis “that  hammer home the full cost of the international community’s failure to prevent conflict.” In Ra’anan Alexandrowicz’ documentary “The Law in These Parts” , Israeli judges explain frankly how they bend laws to justify whatever the Israeli state chooses to do.

As noted above, Israel and the U.S. never signed on to the International Criminal Court but are imposing sanctions on the court to stymie investigations of their war crimes.  Law professor Alan Dershowitz and human rights expert Michael Ignatieff are infamous for giving the okay to Israeli and US torture and wars by claiming that they prevent an even greater evil (Eyal Weizman).

Further, legal judgments are often not enforced:  in 1999, The International Court of Justice, with overwhelming approval by the UN General Assembly, ruled that Israel’s separation wall had to be dismantled. In July 1996 the International Court of Justice (ICJ) declared that “the threat or use of nuclear weapons would generally be contrary to the rules of international law applicable in armed conflict, and in particular the principles and rules of humanitarian law.” (ElBaradei P 213)G.W. Bush, Obama, Netanyahu, Trump have all used the words “All options are on the table”,  a coded threat to use nuclear weapons.

Politicized law comes in many shapes. Several years ago the Canadian government allowed Israeli General Shaul Mofaz, the “butcher of Jenin”, to enter Canada to speak at a fundraiser for the Israeli military while the government barred anti-war activist U.S. Colonel Ann Wright from entering the country. A suit is being brought to challenge the legality of Israeli military recruitment in Canada

Leo Kuper, authority on genocide, writes that “the structure and ideology of the United Nations, particularly its protective stance in relation to the sovereign rights of the territorial state, stood in the way of effective action” and have taken precedence over intolerable human suffering and threats to peace and security. (p. 164).  Kuper includes Hiroshima and Nagasaki as genocides. The “emasculation of the enforcement procedures” is “deeply embedded in the structure and performance of the UN as a whole….  The aim has been not to protect the victims but the oppressors” (p.175-7). Throughout the period of decolonization following WWII, voting blocs within the UN emerged as “regional and ideological protection rackets” that barter one atrocity for another.  Decolonized nations and states across the political spectrum successfully prevent interventions regarding their own genocidal practices.

  Responding to Operation Protective Edge in 2014, Richard Falk wrote that Israel’s assault on an entrapped civilian population with nowhere to flee a terrifying danger “reveals a serious gap in international humanitarian law.”  In a comprehensive analysis of Israel’s 2009 war on Gaza, Richard Falk wrote that Israel’s weapons and tactics against a defenceless civilian population its non-defensive use of force, amounts to an act of aggression and constitute a crime against peace which is “the supreme crime” encompassing all others. He asks whether “talk of Israeli war crimes is nothing more than talk.” He thinks that political pressures would prevent other countries from intervening, using the principle of universal jurisdiction. Even if there is no conviction, the mere threat of possible prosecution is likely to inhibit travel plans of individuals and has political relevance with respect to the international reputation of a government. There are also non-governmental civil society tribunals such as the Russell Tribunal, now the Permanent Peoples Tribunal based in Rome, that has no binding legal role but  documentary evidence.  He believes that Israel (Gaza), the U.S. (Vietnam), and the former Soviet Union (Afghanistan)have lost the public legitimacy war which may be much more significant.  Kuper similarly writes of effective continuous pressure by international public opinion in defeating South African apartheid (p. 209).

 THOUGHTS ABOUT PROSPECTS

Many are well- informed about the severe threats and increasingly desperate worldwide situation. As described here, Israel is an amoral, destructive player along with other nations steeped in permanent militarism rationalized by the war on terror, neoliberalism, whose institutions are led by people unaccountable to the public. What are the possibilities of overturning this matrix-of-control  in Israel and worldwide? On a panel “Dismantling the System”,  Black Lives Matter  Keeanga-Yamahtta Taylor  spoke about different kinds of organizing to fight different battles, that what works in the midst of an uprising might not work two months later when more organizing and other tactics are needed. She spoke of organizational accountability and coordination and of leaders who need to be accountable to groups.  She emphasized flexibility, talking and thinking together, historical knowledge, openness to the newness of the moment, and challenged divisiveness across key political groups. She called for a general strike against racism and injustice — “where is the labor movement?” It should be noted that in the recent past, dockworkers in California, in Greece, and in South Africa refused to load and unload Israeli weapons when Israel attacked Gaza. Accusations that criticism of Israel is antisemitic undermine labour leaders like Jeremy Corbyn in England and eco-socialist Dimitri Lascaris in Canada.  The allegation of antisemitism contributes to the silencing and the crippling disunity of the Left.

Keeanga-Yamahtta Taylor implies the importance of understanding the whole picture, as much as possible, and is a warning against simplistic formulas and single solutions.  Divestment campaigns against corporate and pension fund investments in Israeli weapons systems can additionally move to a broader strategy of dismantling the corporation and private pension fund system itself, their sole function being profit. These huge investment systems undergird the extraction, weapons, pharmaceutical, and big agriculture sectors. Anti-nuclear weapons campaigns and anti-Zionist groups must together end their silence about Israel’s nuclear weapons and Israel’s role in undermining  abolition of these weapons. When problems are experienced as an emergency, solidarity must aim for maximum effectiveness. Following Kuper, a historical review of self-determination is due. 

The public is not monolithic and people change. Authoritarianism is not “in” the brain and people do resist or renounce indoctrination. Youth in Israel and in India and the U.S., are brainwashed from an early age in militaristic ethno-nationalism.  Possibly young politicized progressive people can best reach them. What kind of safe society can be offered to the younger generation who can now see that capitalism works only for the very few. The global reaction to the killing of George Floyd suggests a tipping point of rage against racism. Protests in Israel connected George Floyd with the police killing of an Ethiopian-Israeli teenager by an off-duty policeman. 

The ominous descent into tyranny and extinction threats are complex emergencies, but there are many points of entry.  Political power is in great flux and is unpredictable, and while there is no quick fix, things must be fixed quickly. 

 

“And scream that you may hear yourself,

And scream that you may know you’re alive,

And alive, and that life on this earth is

Possible.”

Mahmoud Darwish Obituary for Edward Said

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Haim Bresheeth-Zabner. The IDF – an army like no other.   London,  Verso, 2020.

Catherine Cook, Adam Hanieh, Adah Kay, Stolen Youth: The politics of Israel’s detention of Palestinian children, London: Pluto Press, 2004.

 

Mohamed ElBaradei “Preventing Nuclear Catastrophe: where do we go from here?” in Richard Falk and David Krieger, At the Nuclear Precipice: catastrophe or transformation? NewYork: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.

 

Daniel Ellsberg, The Doomsday Machine, New York: Bloomsbury, 2017.

 

Yves Engler, Canada and Israel, Winnipeg: Fernwood, 2010.

 

Andrew Feinstein, The Shadow World: inside the global arms trade, London: Penguin Books, 2012.

 

Norman G. Finkelstein, The Holocaust Industry: Reflections on the exploitation of Jewish suffering. London: Verso, 2000.

 

Jeff Halper, War Against the People: Israel, the Palestinians and global pacification, London: Pluto Press, 2015.

 

Seymour Hersh, The Samson Option: Israel, America and the Bomb, London: Faber and Faber, 1991.

Adam Horowitz, Lizzy Ratner, Philip Weiss, eds., The Goldstone Report: the legacy of the landmark investigation of the Gaza conflict, New York: Nation Books, 2011.

 

Leo Kuper, Genocide: its political use in the twentieth century, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1981.

 

Peter Loewenberg, Decoding the Past: the psychohistorical approach, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985.

 

Todd Miller, Empire of Borders: the expansion of the US border around the world, London: Verso, 2019.

 

Ilan Pappe Out of the Frame: the struggle for academic freedom in Israel, London: Pluto Press, 2010.

 

Israel Shahak, Open Secrets: Israeli nuclear and foreign policies, London: Pluto Press, 1997.

 

Avi Shlaim, The Iron Wall: Israel and the Arab World, New York, W.W. Norton, 2001.

 

Eyal Weizman, The Least of All Possible Evils: Humanitarian violence from Arendt to Gaza, London: Verso, 2011.

 

 

 

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