SfP Bulletin November 1987
Full text version of all articles from PDF edition is also available.
Cruise Missile Testing
In connection with the INF agreement between the USA and USSR, there has been discussion about the original undertaking by Canada to test the cruise missile and the NATO “two-track” decision of 1979. In the letter from Allan MacEachen, then secretary of state for External Affairs, to George Schultz communicating the decision to approve the American request to test cruise missiles, this relationship is clearly stated: (Letter dated July 15, 1983)
“Because the weapons-testing issue raises fundamental questions affecting global security, mg Cabinet colleagues have asked me to write you to set out in some detail the context in which this decision has been taken.
Canada joined in the NATO “two-track” decision in 1979, under which new allied missiles will be deployed in Europe beginning this year unless a verifiable agreement can be reached with the Soviet Union to make this action unnecessary. When we met with our NATO colleagues in June, we agreed that, if the negotiations are to succeed, it will be important for all the Allies to stand together behind their decision. As our contribution to this solidarity, Canada has agreed to help test vital components of the technology of the cruise missile It is the Canadian Government’s firm intention to redouble its efforts in the coming months to contribute to the progress and eventual success of current negotiations
With the INF agreement almost concluded, renewed testing of cruise missiles surely sends the wrong signal to the rest of the world.
The Enclosed Brochure:
We all recognize that the main strength of Science for Peace is its membership. This is also Canada’s strength since many of Canada’s outstanding scientists are already Science for Peace members.
There is a need, however, for more coordinated effort among members and their colleagues. Cross-and interdisciplinary groups exploring the making of a Canada and a world at peace are essential now to give an image of a future we can all work toward.
Such groups have already begun to form: most successful to date is a working group on International Surveillance and Verification led by Walter Dorn. This working group has sponsored a series of workshops, and Walter now serves as consultant to UN as well as other Canadian groups. Another working group focuses on chemical and biological weapons. A new group is being organized to explore questions about NORAD. The newly organized network of associate research and education directors is ready to assist in the formation of such working groups.
Moving ahead under the leadership of Franklyn Griffiths is a circumpolar conference on peaceful cooperation in the Arctic. This will be a major undertaking in cooperation with the Canadian Institute for International Peace and Security.
With this Bulletin you receive a copy of the new brochure which describes in greater detail the activities of Science for Peace members. Pass it on to a colleague and ask for as many more as you can use.
— George Ignatieff
Study war no more
The Canadian Intelligence Service
Is checking the country’s Peace Movement.
Are Soviet agents lurking there
In clandestine deployment?
We hesitate any intrusion
Into spy-catcher machinations.
We revel in all the intrigues
In later publications.
War movements are not to be scrutinized.
That would violate all sense of fair play.
Guns and bombs do not kill: it’s people
Who somehow get in their way.
— Murray Wilton Oct. 23, 1987
Nov. 9-15 is the Second International Peace Week of Scientists. The purpose of the week is for scientists throughout the world to engage in a broad and intensive public dialogue on issues of peace. The project is coordinated by the Nuclear Age Peace Foundation of Santa Barbara, Calif. Science for Peace coordinator for Canada is Eric Fawcett, Toronto.
The Polanyi Chair
NSERC president Arthur May announced Oct. 26 that John Polanyi himself would be the first John C. Polanyi Professor at the University of Toronto. The chair is the first ever funded by the Council. Co-funder was the Jackman Foundation whose grant will be used exclusively for Polanyi while he is at the University.
SfP, Pugwash Canada and University College of the University of Toronto have launched the Polanyi Peace Fund, contributions to which will be lodged with the Royal Society of Canada and used to fund scientists who want to accommodate applications to peaceful uses of science in their work.
David Suzuki speaks on “The Nuclear Age, 1987 — ?” at the Second Nobel Peace Prize Gala Dinner for CPPNW Nov. 5 in Toronto. Proceeds from the dinner will support third world and student delegates to the IPPNW Congress in Montreal June 2-6, 1988. Congress President is Paul Cappon, Montreal. He will preside over this eighth world congress whose theme is Healing our Planet: a Global Prescription.
US and Arms Control
“It will be during the 100th Congress that much of the roadmap of weapons developments and/or reductions will be charted for the next decade. If no major arms control treaty or treaties are concluded during this Congress, the informed pool of experience and the negotiating relationships built over the last few years will be mainly lost. The next president will start from scratch, build his own team, orient his priorities, and all this takes considerable time. The opportunity for concluding important treaties will probably not be available again until the early 1990’s.”
— U.S. Senate Majority Leader, Robert Byrd, Council for a Livable World
— and Space
“The Pentagon usurps civilian space programs,” claims. Congressman George E. Brown, Jr,, (Calif.)of the House of Representatives Science, Space and Technology Committee and Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence in the November issue of Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists.
“The Administration will have spent more than twice as much on SDI during 1987 as it has this year on NASA’s entire space science and applications program. It will have spent 1009 more on the development of directed-energy weapons than it has on space-exploration missions…they convey a resounding message about US priorities for the future of space.”
A “CWC” feasible
In October I attended a two-day conference on Implementing a Global Chemical Weapons Conference sponsored by the Canadian Centre for Arms Control and Disarmament. Six experts there had just returned from a trip to the largest chemical weapons production facility in the Soviet Union. Although many areas of the draft convention still need to be worked out, I was left with the impression that a CWC, with strict international monitoring, is technically feasible and politically possible.
— A. Walter Dorn
THE “HISTORIC AGREEMENT” to eliminate short-range and intermediate-range nuclear forces announced last month in Washington has been greeted with great fanfare. There have been reports of near euphoria among groups that want to end the arms race.
Before the agreement, it was well known that important issues divided the parties. Among those issues were the 72 U.S. warheads available for use on West German ‘Pershing missiles, the timetable for dismantling the missiles and the method of verification. In a radio interview after the two sides announced their ° “tentative agreement in principle.” Soviet spokesman Vladimir Alexiyev listed some of the issues yet to be settled. These include the 72 warheads, the timetable for destruction of the missile systems, and verification methods.
There are strong disagreements in the governing West German coalition about the wisdom of giving up the missiles and it is important for the Soviets that the destruction of the warheads be written into any agreement they sign.
In the absence of supporting evidence, has the gap between the two powers really narrowed? The only agreement actually announced is an agreement to meet again, an agreement to try to arrange a summit, and an agreement to talk about nuclear testing. There is no treaty; there is no completed agreement to destroy weapons. There is not even a hint of an agreement to reduce the total strength of nuclear forces.
The debate on the timetable for destruction of the missiles and warheads should point up another aspect of this situation. Withdrawing and dismantling the weapons under discussion could be done quite rapidly. The timetable is an issue because military planners want time to compensate for the loss of the weapons.
The land-based missiles included in the agreement are the most vulnerable and destablizing weapons around. They are, in a sense, totally redundant because they can be replaced by longer-range missiles, which now have an accuracy comparable to older, shorter-range missiles. Because short- and medium-range land-based missiles must be kept relatively close to their targets, there is real danger that a surprise attack could damage some of them. Because of their short range, those who fire them might encounter some of the radioactivity that results from their detonation on nearby targets. The destruction of these missiles on a leisurely timetable that allows their replacement by longer-ranged weapons and submarine-based weapons is not disarmament; it is modernization.
It is important to ask why conservative Western governments have greeted such nebulous progress with such fanfare. Pro-, militarization troupe may hope to use the illusion of progress to reduce the pressure for real disarmament. If the public’s attention can be distracted by these “dramatic breakthroughs,” it may not notice that the arms race continues unabated.
If the public believes that continued military build-ups have brought disarmament, it may lose interest in groups that want to end the build-up. If the public believes that solidarity has achieved disarmament, support for political parties favoring re-examination of military alliances would be reduced. In other words, the illusion of change and progress may be needed to protect the status quo. All the fanfare may be designed to reduce dissent within the alliances.
Those who want an end to the arms race obviously must regard this “tentative agreement in principle” as positive. However, they must not allow wishful thinking and skilful public relations to delude or distract them. We must never forget that there are powerful forces that do not want disarmament and that we cannot end the arms race by building mare weapons.
As a former negotiator on trade for Canada at GATT, I am keenly aware that it is the “fine print” that is important if we are to judge the advantages or disadvantages of the Free Trade deal. Especially is this true of non-tariff barriers.
From what I have read, the terms of the agreement seem to be a retrograde step when perceived in terms of the aims of GATT: to guarantee equality of trading opportunity among all trading nations on a global rather than a regional basis; to abolish import quotas and countervail duties, exchange controls and preferences; to provide machinery for general tariff reductions and removal of non-tariff trade restrictions; to curb the restrictive practices of monopolies and cartels and other measures hampering the free flow of trade between nations.
The agreement reached between the USA and Canada is continentalist and addressed primarily to American trading interests. The machinery for settling disputes is to be based on American Trade Laws, not GATT rules, in which aggregate concessions gained in bilateral negotiations are supposed to be generalized to the same products from all participants in GATT, under the Most-Favoured-Nations rule.
It is not the abolition of tariffs that is the challenge of the Canada-USA Free Trade accord. It is the actual new political coherence that others, as well as Canadians, see growing, with the USA as the unquestioned leader of a new economic bloc, working out its “manifest destiny” in its own interests. Gatt, on the other hand, offers, together with other international institutions like the IMF, the World Bank and the UN, a global approach more compatible with world interdependence. This results from the network of world communications and the increasing fluidity of world commerce and finance.
The Bulletin has a consignment of Walter Dorn’s Peace-Keeping Satellites, published by Peace Research Reviews, PRI-Dundas, which may be advantageously ordered by members with an IUTS address. Cost of the book is $8.00. For those members outside the IUTS area, orders should be placed directly with PRI -D, 25 Dundana Ave., Dundas, Ont.,Canada, L9H 4E5.
The October-November issue of Peace Magazine (736 Bathurst St. Toronto, Canada MSS 5R4) carries another article by Walter Dorn, “PAXSAT: A Canadian Initiative in Arms Control”.His review of the CIIPS-SfP Satellite Surveillance Workshop (7 July) ‘will be available from the Bulletin. It will be one of the first of the long-awaited “SfP Occasional Papers” prepared by the Publications Committee.
Gensuikin News (publication of the Japan Congress Against Atomic and Hydrogen Bombs) for Summer, 1987, takes a comprehensive look at “The Present State of Nuclear Power in Japan”. With photographs, tables and maps illuminating the text, in a few pages a fairly clear picture emerges. The Bulletin will copy for you on request. The publication is in English. By the way, you can subscribe directly: address: 4th floor, Akimoto Bldg. 2-19, Tsukasa-cho, Kaneda, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
Current changes in personnel and potentially in programs at the United Nations makes a re-reading of John Holmes’ little booklet, BEHIND THE HEADLINES; The United Nations in Perspective, important. From the CIIA, 15 King’s College Circle, University of Toronto,Toronto, Canada MSS 2V9.
A somewhat different perspective on the United Nations emerges from the Stanley Foundation report, “The United Nations and the Future of Internationalism”, a report of the 22nd UN of the Next Decade Conference sponsored by the Foundation. The dominant outlooks expressed in the two documents are those of a middle power and a super power — the convergences are important.
Stanley Foundation publications are available directly from the Foundation at 420 East Third Street, Muscatine, Iowa 52761 USA.
A March, 1986 paper by Arnold Simoni, Regional Conflict Resolution — Background Paper,is as relevant today as when first offered through the Bulletin. ,Discussion relating to Central America especially so.
Robert Malcolmson, Moral Virtue and Nuclear Strategy, an essay in the Autumn 1987 issue of CIIPS magazine, Peace & Security. Requests to CIIPS.
Yves Belanger and Pierre Fournier of the Groupe de recherche sur l’industrie militaire et la reconversion have published a working paper on the Canadian military economy: L’industrie militaire canadienne et la problematique economique gouvernementale (Note de recherche no. 35, Dept. de science politique, UQAM). The paper can be obtained for $2 from Prof. Belanger, Dept. de science politique, UQAM, C.P. 8888, Succ. A, Montreal, P.Q. H3C 3P8 Canada.
The Redemption of Science was title of Anatol Rapoport’s contribution to an international conference on science, the humanities and religion, Converging Realities, which constituted the twelfth annual conference of the Association for Baha’i Studies at Princeton University October 22-25.
Prof. Rapoport’s paper for the Princeton Conference is available from the Bulletin.
Since 1969, Professor and Director of the Institute for Materials Research at McMaster University. Prior to his tenure at McMaster, Prof. Morrison spent twenty – two years at the National Research Council in Ottawa where he became Director of pure chemistry. “James Morrison was recognized as one of the leading Canadians in his field. A year ago on his retirement from McMaster, his department honored him with a colloquium on surfaces. Anyone in touch with him was deeply impressed with his great integrity.”
- Ursula Franklin
Professor Morrison had been a member of Science for Peace from its early days.
from Philip Ehrensaft:
I will establish a working group for those members interested in nuclear proliferation. Contact me via Bitnet — R14644@UQAM or at Dept. de sociologie, UQAM, CP 8888, Succ A, Montreal, P.O. 53C 3P8.
Robert Reford received a $10,000 research grant from CIIPS for a study of Canada’s national security interests in the Pacific.
John Holmes (CIIA, Toronto) was a Canadian participant in a joint CIIPS-Academy of Sciences of the USSR symposium in Moscow on issues of international peace and Security in September.
Pat Alcock has joined Science for Peace’s growing staff as national office coordinator for the 1988 Arctic Conference,whose director — Franklyn Griffiths — is spending this year at Stanford University in California.
The Canadian government’s answer to protests about the renewed testing of the cruise missile by the US is “that the cruise now being tested is an airborne weapon, while the prospective European agreement covers only ground-based intermediate-range missiles.”
— Robert Duff, Toronto Star
Soviet Arctic Policy
The attention of all Arctic nations, not the least the USSR, has become noticeably focused on their relationship to that region of the globe since the increasing military interest in the area has become generally known. Canada’s “sitting duck” position between the two super powers has become an acute and potentially costly position as the DoD contemplates the purchase of 10-12 nuclear submarines to patrol and protect Canada’s interests and sovereignty there.
In a speech in Murmansk Oct. 1, Mikhail Gorbachev outlined Soviet proposals aimed at a reduction of the level of military confrontation in the Arctic. A letter of transmission from the Soviet Embassy in Ottawa to President George Ignatieff states, “The Soviet side considers this programme as a ‘Northern Dimension’ of a comprehensive system of international security and as an invitation to all interested parties to a serious dialogue on the whole range of issues of security and cooperation in the North.”
Copies are available from the Bulletin or directly from the Press Office of the USSR Embassy in Canada, 400, rue Stewart St., Apt.1108, Ottawa K1N 6L2.
As its first “public venture” the new Markland Group Ca brochure is enclosed with this copy. of the Bulletin) and the Canadian Institute of International Affairs co-sponsored a workshop on Treaty Compliance at Trinity College (U of Toronto) June 19. The workshop attracted eighteen lawyers or professors of law and diplomats who selected three areas of concern to study: treaty administering agencies national compliance legislation systems involving progressive publicizing of possible violations.
To continue the inquiry a second workshop will be held in late November or December with CUPS support.
Founder and chairman of The Markland Group is SfP member Douglas Scott. Other SfP members participating in the organization are Hanna Newcombe, Bruce Conard and Walter Dorn.
At the Fourth Conference on Astronautics of the Canadian Aeronautics and Space Institute (Nov. 3-4, Ottawa) Welter Dorn will deliver a paper, Airborne and Satellite Verification of Arms Control Agreements: Past, Present and Future. The conference marks the 25th anniversary of Canada’s space program.
Focus on Education
B.C. Chapter News
Michael Wallace and Luis Sobrino are teaching a non-credit course on Nuclear War: Political and Scientific Issues at UBC. This is the second year that SfP has sponsored the course. We are hoping that once we have established the relevance of the issue it will be easier to institute a full-credit course. We are also hoping that Seymour Melman will be nominated as a Cecil and Ida Greene Visiting Professor for 1988-89. His field of study is the military economy and how it impacts the nation’s economy as a whole.
— Vera Webb
Until a planned January, 1988, referendum among members of the American Math Society, the monthly Notices is providing a forum for on the issue of defence funding. Chandler Davis (U of T) discusses SDI as a funding source and ethical implications of taking proffered funds in the November issue. The Bulletin will copy this section for you if you do not have access to AMS publications.
New McGill Course
“As of January, 1988, a 300-level course tentatively entitled ‘Deterrence Avoidance and Arms Control, War and War Limitation will be at McGill. Thanks to the good offices of Jim Tully, the Dept. of Political Science has agreed to be the sponsoring department for hte course and will provide a substantial part of the funding and other resources. The (McGill) study group (for peace and disarmament) will contribute $2000 and several of the executive committee members will be giving lectures in the course … This course will be open to undergraduate students in all faculties across the campus.”
— Don Bates, Chairman, MSGPD
The preceding statement comes from MSGPD’s annual report. Other actions of interest to SfP members: MSGPD sponsored the organization of the SAGE group of four Montreal teenagers who toured Canada with the NFB film, “If You Love This Planet”, reaching 125,000 Canadian high-schoolers with their message. The four young people accompanied the Canadian delegation to the Moscow 1987 IPPNW Conference where they contacted Soviet students.
Coming Nov. 13 in Montreal, a day-long Professional Development Institute as part of the Quebec Provincial Ass’ns of Catholic and Protestant Teachers, PACT/PAPT annual convention. In cooperation with the National Film Board of Canada, the Institute will focus on “Images for a Peaceful Planet”, an exploration of ways of integrating film, video and imagery for peace in any subject area, K thru Adult Ed. Other collaborators are Peace Education Network/Quebec, the Professional Educators’ Development Service of McGill University and the Quebec Ass’n for Adult Learning. For more information, contact Joann Harrison, Education Office, NFB D-5, P.O. Box 6100, Station A, Montreal H3C 3115, or Rosemary Sullivan, Pigeon Hill Peacemaking Centre, 1965 St. Armand Rd.,Pigeon Hill, P.Q. JOJ 1TO.
Wednesday lectures for November and December at University College: Clarke MacDonald, Freeman Dyson, Ian Hastie, Meyer Brownstone, John Lamb, Liisa North. For information and programs, contact Eric Fawcett at 978-5217 or 486-9801. The Harbourfront Free Forum in Toronto, in recognition of International Disarmament Week, presented a panel on Security and Alternatives to National Military Defence.
Peace Studies at UCSB
U.S. member Walter Kohn (Physics, University of California at Santa Barbara) is on the Steering Committee of the University’s Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation. The Institute was established in 1983 to stimulate and support research and teaching at all campuses of the university on topics related to international peace and conflict. The Institute attempts to stimulate new and innovative research that will allow the application of scholarly insights from fields that have not traditionally been associated with the study of peace and security.
A new voice —
Catherine Armstrong’s is the voice that greets you when you call the Science for Peace National Office since October 1. She takes over as secretary for George Ignatieff and of Science for Peace from Molly O’Reilly who served as Science for Peace’s first paid employee for a year.
Catherine is also editor of News Of The Phoenix, newsletter for the Swansea Area Seniors Association, Toronto.
Polanyi in Science
A condensed version of the lecture delivered by John Polanyi when he received the Nobel Prize in Stockholm last year appears in the 8 May issue of Science (AAAS, 1333 H St. NW, Washington, D.C. 20005 USA).
“The objective in this work,” writes Polanyi, “has been one which I have shared with the two other 1986 Nobel Lecturers in Chemistry, D.R. Herschbach and Y.T. Lee, as well as with a wide group of colleagues and co-workers who have been responsible for bringing this field to its current state.” Some Concepts in Reaction Dynamics is the title.
Recommended by the Research and Education Directors and approved by the Board of Directors, the Bulletin is to increase in size; this month to an authorized six pages, perhaps to eight later.
It is beginning to have a staff — Philip Wallace, Professor Emeritus of Physics, McGill University, former Principal of Science College, Concordia University, and Philip Ehrensaft, Professor of Sociology, Université de Quebec a Montreal, take on responsibility for reviews for the Bulletin. Plans are to develop a critical and helpful service for educators in peace and conflict studies.
A cautionary word, however, comes from SIP board member Ursula Franklin, who points out that she can read the Bulletin as soon as it comes. Other, lengthier publications she has to lay aside for time to read — which may or may not come.
Gregory Baum (McGill) will deliver this year’s Massey Lectures on the CBC Ideas series Nov. 2-6. His theme is “Compassion and Solidarity: The Church for Others”. According to Michael Higgins (St. Jerome’s College Waterloo), writing in the Globe & Mail, the “Baum Massey Lectures are an effort to advance a critical social theory that enjoys the support of the Canadian Roman Catholic episcopate, Pope John Paul II and an increasingly vocal and influential minority in the church.”